- Book Review: A history of West Africa’s golden empires | Arab News
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- Empires of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhay
The Egyptians are known to have sent huge caravans and flotillas on trade missions to Punt—most notably during the 15th century B.
Book Review: A history of West Africa’s golden empires | Arab News
The site of the fabled kingdom is now a hotly debated topic among scholars. The Arabian Peninsula and the Levant have both been proposed as potential candidates, but most believe it existed somewhere on the Red Sea coast of East Africa. In , a team of researchers tried to zero in on Punt by analyzing a mummified baboon that its rulers once gifted to the Egyptian pharaohs.
While their results showed that the remains most closely matched animals found in modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea, the precise location of the Land of Punt has still yet to be confirmed. Tunisia, Carthage. The city-state began its life in the 8th or 9th century B.
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At its peak, its capital city boasted nearly half a million inhabitants and included a protected harbor outfitted with docking bays for ships. Beginning in B. Today, almost all that remains of the once-mighty empire is a series of ruins in the city of Tunis. During the same period that the Roman Empire rose and fell, the influential Kingdom of Aksum held sway over parts of what are now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia.
In the fourth century, Aksum became one of the first empires in the world to adopt Christianity, which led to a political and military alliance with the Byzantines. The empire later went into decline sometime around the 7th or 8th century, but its religious legacy still exists today in the form of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Depiction of Mansa Musa. Under Keita and his successors, the empire tightened its grip over a large portion of West Africa and grew rich on trade.
The Mali Empire eventually disintegrated in the 16th century, but at its peak it was one of the jewels of the African continent and was known the world over for its wealth and luxury. According to contemporary sources, Musa dished out so much gold during the visit that he caused its value to plummet in Egyptian markets for several years.
Credit: Luis Dafos. For sheer size, few states in African history can compare to the Songhai Empire. Formed in the 15th century from some of the former regions of the Mali Empire, this West African kingdom was larger than Western Europe and comprised parts of a dozen modern day nations. In time, the position of mansa evolved into a more powerful role similar to a king or emperor. According to tradition, Mali was suffering from a fearful drought when a visitor told the king, Mansa Barmandana, that the drought would break if he converted to Islam. This he did, and as predicted the drought did end.
Other Mandinkans followed the king's lead and converted as well, but the mansa did not force a conversion, and many retained their Mandinkan beliefs. This religious freedom would remain throughout the centuries to come as Mali emerged as a powerful state.
The man primarily responsible for Mali's rise to prominence is Sundiata Keita. Although his life and deeds have taken on legendary proportions, Sundiata was no myth but a talented military leader.
After the Susu downfall, Sundiata laid claim to the lucrative gold and salt trade that had been so significant to Ghanaian prosperity. As Mansa, he established a cultural exchange system whereby the sons and daughters of prominent leaders would spend time in foreign courts, thus promoting understanding and a better chance of peace among nations. Upon Sundiata's death in his son, Wali, not only continued his work but made great strides in agricultural development.
Under Mansa Wali's rule, competition was encouraged among trading centers such as Timbuktu and Jenne, strengthening their economic positions and allowing them to develop into important centers of culture. Next to Sundiata, the most well-known and possibly the greatest ruler of Mali was Mansa Musa. During his year reign, Musa doubled the territory of the Malian Empire and tripled its trade.
Empires of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhay
Because he was a devout Muslim, Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca in , astonishing the peoples he visited with his wealth and generosity. So much gold did Musa introduce into circulation in the middle east that it took about a dozen years for the economy to recover. Gold was not the only form of Malian riches. Early Mandinka society venerated creative arts, and this did not change as Islamic influences helped to shape Mali. Education was also highly valued; Timbuktu was a significant center of learning with several prestigious schools.
This intriguing blend of economic wealth, cultural diversity, artistic endeavors and higher learning resulted in a splendid society to rival any contemporary European nation.
Malian society had its drawbacks, yet it is important to view these aspects in their historical setting. By today's standards, justice could be harsh in Africa, but no harsher than European medieval punishments. Women had very few rights, but such was certainly true in Europe as well, and Malian women, just like European women, were at times able to participate in business a fact that disturbed and surprised Muslim chroniclers.
War was not unknown on either continent -- just as today. After the death of Mansa Musa, the Kingdom of Mali went into a slow decline.