- Does Knowledge Management Lead to Innovation? an Empirical Study on SMEs in Rwanda - Research leap
- Knowledge management
- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
- Knowledge Management and Business Strategies: Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Research
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Does Knowledge Management Lead to Innovation? an Empirical Study on SMEs in Rwanda - Research leap
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Trivia About Knowledge Managem No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. Discovery involves locating internal knowledge within the organization. This process addresses the oft-quoted phrase, "if only we knew what we know". Large, non-hierarchical or geographically dispersed organizations find this knowledge gathering process especially helpful as one part of the organization may not be aware of the knowledge existing in its other parts. Acquisition involves bringing knowledge into an organization from external sources. The creation of new knowledge may be accomplished in several ways.
First, internal knowledge may be combined with other internal knowledge to create new knowledge. And secondly, information may be analyzed to create new knowledge. This is adding value to information so that it is able to produce action. One example of this knowledge creation process is competitive intelligence.
Technologies are useful at this stage because they can facilitate the creation of new knowledge through the synthesis of data and information captured from diverse sources Oluic-Vukovic, After knowledge has been gathered, it must be stored and shared. Knowledge sharing involves the transfer of knowledge from one or more person to another one or more.
Knowledge sharing is often a major preoccupation with knowledge management and is frequently addressed in the literature. Not only most organizations abandon the idea that all knowledge should be documented, but they should also be ready to implement different methods for sharing different types of knowledge Snowden, It is our contention that the focus of KM is not on the distribution nor the dissemination of knowledge but on its sharing.
Although knowledge can be acquired at the individual level, to be useful it must be shared by a community, often described as a community of practice.
For instance, if there is only one person knowing organizational rules and procedures, such rules and procedures would be useless and meaningless. On the other hand, rules and procedures emanate from communities and exist precisely to regulate group activities.
Knowledge sharing is then crucial when new employees arrive and others quit. The management of information does not really focus on information sharing and is more oriented toward the control, preservation, and retention of information. One could also argue that the usefulness and the meaningfulness of information do not depend as much on its collective consumption or sharing: its individual consumption and use could be very effective from an organizational point of view.
In fact, too much distribution of information can lead to information overload which could paralyze action. Knowledge sharing is perceived, for example, by the World Bank as critical for economic development and as an important next step going beyond the dissemination of information MacMorrow, In the end, the cycle of knowledge management is not complete nor successful if no efforts are made to ensure the use of stored and shared knowledge.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
On the other hand, the success of an IM project is achieved when the preservation and the retrieval of information is guaranteed while the success of a KM program ultimately depends on the sharing of knowledge Martensson, The purpose of the study was to identify general trends in KM practices across several organizational types in order to gain insight into why and how organizations are practicing the management of knowledge.
In particular, the goal was to determine six dimensions of KM initiatives:. As an exploratory study, the methodology consisted to conduct a small number of case studies by using published materials on various organizations that undertook KM projects. Twelve cases were identified through a literature search of ABI Inform and LISA as well as an Internet search using the key phrase "knowledge management": 6 private sector organizations, and 6 public sector organizations. The public sector organizations include both governmental and intergovernmental institutions.
Three selection criteria were used:.https://taitenneterpu.tk
Knowledge Management and Business Strategies: Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Research
Each case was reviewed and details of each area of interest were extracted and recorded. The data were then compared and analyzed. The case studies are not assumed to be an exhaustive examination of the KM activities of each organization. It is apparent that knowledge management practices are often performed under other designations and were therefore not identified in the literature review.
And, presumably, many of these organizations practice KM in other areas not described in the publications used. A comprehensive study of KM practices within any organization would require collecting data from each organization, combined with observation and interviews, and ideally an ethnographic approach. However, there are few organizational initiatives that have been as well documented as KM projects.
Organizations practicing KM are, not surprisingly, prone to document and share their experience: this seems to be consistent with the philosophy underlying KM. Therefore, in spite of the limitations of our methodology, it was possible to collect significant amount of information on each case.
Our analysis is entirely based on the terminology used in the documentation, terminology that is not always clear in term of conceptual implications. The stated goals and objectives vary greatly from one organization to another but they all have in common the idea of increasing knowledge sharing Table 1. For all private sector organizations, the objectives were to facilitate the sharing of employee knowledge throughout the organization.
For example, tacit knowledge is shared through communities of practice by making people working together or interacting in the workplace, explicit knowledge is made available through expert systems and by mapping experts and their knowledge resources. Pharmaceutical companies focus clearly on one objective related to time reduction for approving new products. For the public sector institutions, the objectives include sharing knowledge not only within the organization but also outside it with partners and the general public. Other objectives are raised and deal with knowledge creation, discovery, acquisition, application and accumulation Table 2 for summary of each case numbered 1 to From the stated objectives, we were able to derive the following KM processes, in addition to knowledge sharing:.
It is interesting to see that in most cases, specific types of knowledge were addressed in KM project. Although most organizations try to tackle tacit and explicit knowledge, they do it with a specific focus. Interestingly, cultural knowledge Choo, a was not mentioned anywhere, as if it was not relevant or even considered. Given the enormous focus on organizational culture in the management literature during the s, this is somewhat puzzling to see no attempt to share that type of knowledge.
In all cases, employees are the sources of knowledge as well as the main consumers of knowledge.
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The particular methodologies used in each organization are summarized in Table 3. The methodologies are overwhelmingly designed to provide or facilitate the sharing of tacit knowledge and attempts to codify tacit knowledge were few. Communities of practice, question and answer forums, and expert databases, all of which facilitate tacit knowledge sharing, were used in eleven of the twelve case studies.
A much smaller emphasis was placed on sharing explicit knowledge. These contain explicit knowledge such as previous problem solving techniques and best practices that were codified through interviews or reports.