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The Sociology of Nationalism: Tomorrow's Ancestors (International Library of Sociology)
  1. The boundaries of civil society in a stateless nation. Governing nineteenth-century Edinburgh
  2. 15.1. The Sociological Approach to Religion
  3. The Sociology of Nationalism: Tomorrow's Ancestors
  4. The Sociology of Nationalism by David McCrone | Waterstones

All those in this latter group are more or less influenced by Marx-derived concepts, but hardly any one of them would consider himself a strict Marxist or even a profound student of Marx. The latter is best known for his contributions to the understanding of "post-industrial" society.

The boundaries of civil society in a stateless nation. Governing nineteenth-century Edinburgh

In the case of Herbert Marcuse, once the idol of "New Left" students in two continents, a new kind of "hastening the end" attitude appeared, which cast away the classical Marxian idea of the proletariat as the bearer of the revolution and the redeemer of mankind, in favor of a dynamic interplay of the free intellect and the free eros.

This is a species of anarchism, the very contradiction to the dogmatic Marxian approach related to it. In comparison to these profound ramifications of Marxian influence in sociology, which are traced here only insofar as its major Jewish proponents are concerned, Marxian sociology proper does not seem to have been overly fruitful. On the other hand, the sociological significance of those authors who were active participants in socialist and communist partisan movements is blunted by the fact that they were primarily social philosophers, ideologists, polemicists, interpreters rather than researchers or sociological theorists, supplying a comprehensive philosophy of historical development for the faithful.

This approach was a forerunner of those protagonists of the "third world" who, like Frantz Fanon, cast the colored peoples in the role originally designed for the industrial proletariat. However, Rosa Luxemburg thought that nationalities would disappear in this gigantic expansion of exploitation, a belief which was not shared by the "third world" protagonists.

Jews figure prominently among the founding fathers of academic sociology. Their backgrounds were in law, economics, history, and philosophy, but their fame rests with their achievements in sociology. Of these, Gumplowicz is the least known today because he spent his adult life, bitter with the frustrations of the Austro-Hungarian nationality struggles, in an academic backwater at the University of Graz. His embracement of a pessimistic brand of social determinism, derived from Darwinian notions, seemed justified by the circumstances.

15.1. The Sociological Approach to Religion

According to Gumplowicz, the individual was nothing except as a member of a group, and groups, in turn, were engaged in a fierce struggle for survival in which the bigger dog usually emerges victorious and imposes his law on the vanquished. This gloomy view of race and ethnic relations contrasted sharply with the only other serious theory of race relations, which was later developed in the U. Park and his disciples. Emile Durkheim is an entirely different figure. Agreeing with Gumplowicz that social phenomena are sui generis and more than an aggregate of individual wills, his emphasis was not so much on conflict but on solidarity.

Solidarity can be of a "mechanical" nature, as in homogeneous societies, or of an "organic" character, as in societies based on the division of labor, or it can, when individualism is carried too far, be endangered by normlessness, or "anomie.

As a Jew, Durkheim would provide a fascinating case study, even more than Gumplowicz. The Austrian-Pole Gumplowicz considered the Jews an anachronistic irritant because, having lost language and territory, they had ceased to be a nationality and were doomed to disappear as a separate entity. Religion was thus brought down to earth and placed in a historical, and yet generally valid, context.

Surely, Durkheim would not have needed to travel around the globe to the Australian Arunta to prove that the Jewish people was the corpus mysticum of the Jewish religion and the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob the guarantor of its existence. However, as Gumplowicz would have had to revise his negative evaluation of a Jewish nationality if he had lived to see the establishment of a Jewish state, so Durkheim's theory of the social nature of religion may well serve to sanctify Israel nationalism as known today.

The Sociology of Nationalism: Tomorrow's Ancestors

Georg Simmel, like Durkheim often quoted, especially among U. But these forms are not forms of substance or patterns of behavior; they manifest themselves in interpersonal relations and as such are located in the minds of men. This relational emphasis has struck many readers of Simmel as lacking in concreteness, even in commitment, but it agrees with the Buberian formula about the relational inclination of Jewish thinking, the I-Thou encounter "between man and man," which for Buber must be understood as construed in the image of the encounter between man and the Creator.

Indeed, Buber and Simmel were personal friends. More specifically speaking, Simmel made a significant contribution to the sociology of the Jews in his concept of the "stranger," one of his numerous formal concepts that serve to elucidate a variety of actually occurring phenomena.

The "stranger," according to Simmel, is not so much the man who comes today and goes tomorrow, but the man who comes today and stays tomorrow; and the Jew throughout the ages, but especially the medieval Jew, is the prototype of the species. From then on the role that Jews as persons and Jews as a topic have played in sociology becomes ramified and diffuse. Perhaps the most convenient way of coming to grips with it is to differentiate between the European and the U. In Europe, partly because of the Holocaust, partly for other reasons, only a few outstanding names come to mind.

From this point of departure, Oppenheimer became interested in Zionism and was one of the initial promoters of rural cooperatives in Palestine. The Hungarian-born Karl Mannheim combined influences stemming both from Karl Marx and Max Weber in his elaboration of a "sociology of knowledge" which comprehends knowledge as embedded in the situational experience of the man of knowledge, that is, a relational, although not necessarily a relativistic, phenomenon.

Emile Durkheim, more than any other European sociologist, formed a "school"; his disciples were almost all Jews, but few of them were sociologists. Georges Friedmann, a specialist in industrial sociology, contributed a brilliant analysis of contemporary Israel and the impact which it might have on the future of the Jewish people.

Among the U. Jeffrey Alexander — , a leader in the neo-functionalist tradition, revitalized the understanding of the classic theorists, including Durkheim, Weber, and Marx. His work has been associated with what he calls the "late-Durkheimian" approach, or the "strong program" in cultural sociology as compared to the "weak" program of the sociology of culture.

The Sociology of Nationalism by David McCrone | Waterstones

It should be added in this context that Germany, along with the countries of Eastern Europe, gave birth to the sociology of the Jews. The German effort, on the other hand, in connection with the Verein fuer die Statistik der Juden, was demographic and therefore at least pre-sociological in nature.

The story of the participation of the Jews in U. Among the founding fathers of sociology in the U. The same is true about the second generation. There may be a variety of reasons for this tardy development, but one of them becomes clear if one compares what happened in sociology with the corresponding data in the related field of anthropology. In the second generation, Jews are prominently represented by such students of Boas as A. What is involved is an apparently negative reaction in academic circles to entrusting "foreigners" with the teaching of such sensitive topics as U.

Nor was this negative reaction politically of a predominantly conservative flavor, as one might assume if one were to conclude from European antecedents. Rather, it was radical "progressives" among older U. Ross, and Robert Faris who, in Fairchild's terminology, reminded immigrants that as "guests" they must adapt themselves to their "hosts," if they wished to be "accepted" as equals.

This attitude amounted to a formidable psychological barrier, especially for aspiring Jewish intellectuals. This state of affairs totally changed after when, apart from a limited number of European refugee scholars, a great many native-born Jews entered the ranks of U. Added to basket. Easter Rising Sean Enright. Ed Moloney. Jewish History, Jewish Religion. Israel Shahak. The Myth of Nations. Patrick J. Rebels and Redcoats. Richard Holmes. Nationalism: A Very Short Introduction. Steven Grosby. Pat Leahy. The Invention of the Land of Israel. Shlomo Sand.

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